Historical Evidence for the Christian Faith

sherlockThe historical basis for Christianity is a subject I have returned to several times on my blog. As a young adult, I set out to prove or disprove once and for all the faith I was raised in. If God wasn’t real, why set limits on my behavior? If the tenants of faith could be disproven, why adhere to them? I wanted to know if the gospel story really was true. So I began researching historical evidence. I soon found out Christianity is not a blind faith at all.

So what proofs did I uncover? I’ll list them here under three main headings: The Person of Christ, The Canon of Scripture, and Prophecy.

The Person of Christ

Jesus is the central figure of the Bible and the key to the Christian faith. If he can be discredited, the entire house of cards falls down. It is the logical place to start an investigation into the authenticity of Christianity. So who was he? What did he do? Why is he so important?

The Claims of Christ

Jesus Christ made it abundantly clear who he thought he was. He believed he was the Messiah sent by God to provide atonement for the sin of mankind. That’s a pretty huge claim. Here are two examples of his own statements:

I am the resurrection and the life. He who believes in me will live, even though  he dies: and whoever lives and believes in me will never die. (John 11:25)

I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me. (John 14:6)

Jesus claimed to be the Son of God. There are only three logical responses to it. Either Christ was a liar, or He was crazy, or He was who He said He was.

Liar, Lord, or Lunatic

If you read the rest of the gospels, you’ll see right away that the first option just doesn’t jive. Christ preached against lying and for a moral lifestyle based on God’s law. It makes no sense that he would lie. Nor would he sacrifice his life for a lie. And you can’t argue that he was simply killed. He didn’t have to enter Jerusalem where it was widely known the religious establishment was plotting against him. But he did. He could have made a very good case for himself before Pilate, but he didn’t. He chose to die. Would a man die for a lie? That’s ridiculous.

So could he have been crazy? A crazy man might die for believing a falsehood. But that doesn’t make sense either. Jesus profoundly influenced the world with his teaching and his life. His ideas are succinct, wise, and highly regarded universally. Is this in keeping with an unsound mind? Did his actions at all imply imbalance? I just don’t buy it.

That leaves only one option. Jesus Christ was who he said he was.

The Miracles of Christ

Next, let’s look at what Christ accomplished. We are going to assume for the moment that the gospels are historically accurate (we’ll prove it momentarily) and that the miracles they relate really happened. What miracles were they? Jesus healed the blind and the lame. He caused the mute to speak and the deaf to hear. He cast out demons, fed thousands with a small lunch–twice–turned water to wine, and healed a variety of illnesses. He even raised the dead.

Have you ever heard of any other human ever accomplishing these things? Of course not. They are supernatural occurances that attest to the authenticity of Jesus. The miracles prove the message. They are divine references, if you will. The testimony of God himself to the accuracy of Christ’s claims.

The Resurrection

The resurrection of Christ from the dead is the grandaddy miracle of them all. If it’s true, it verifies Christ’s claim and forms the substance of the Christian religion. In it are tied up faith, love, forgiveness, atonement, and hope through this conquering of death. But it’s so crazy! So unprecedented! So unnatural! Can it really be true? What are the evidences?

The Disciples

Jesus chose twelve young men to be his disciples, and you have to admit they weren’t too impressive. When Jesus was teaching, they always seemed to miss the mark. They argued among themselves. They asked ridiculous questions. And they turned out to be real cowards when Christ was arrested.

But after Christ’s death, that all changed. These men, with the exception of Judas, became vocal proponents for Christ’s message. They took on the Jewish leaders. They traveled to foreign lands. They won converts, started churches, bucked established pagan religions, endured jail time, suffered beatings, and according to tradition, all of them but John died for their faith.

These guys firmly believed Christ’s message. Something substantial made them change. But what? How’d they go from coward to martyr? The only possible answer is that they were witnesses to the very real miracle of the Resurrection.

The Jewish Leaders, Roman Soldiers, and the Lack of a Body

Since Jesus had said ahead of time that he would rise from the dead, the Jewish religious leaders took precautions. They wanted to nip that idea in the bud. More Christian converts meant less power for them! They wanted Christ’s body firmly in the ground as proof that he was a counterfeit. So they asked Roman soldiers to guard the tomb.

These soldiers were the most well-trained, effective army in the world. They were career soldiers, hardened men who didn’t flinch in battle. No one was getting by them. Yet something happened. They scattered. They ran away frightened. What could cause this but a supernatural event? Even an unlikely overpowering force of men wouldn’t send them scurrying but would cause a battle there’d be some record of. They simply scattered. Why?

The Roman guards fled. They left their place of responsibility. How can their attrition he explained, when Roman military discipline was so exceptional? Justin, in Digest #49, mentions all the offenses that required the death penalty. The fear of their superiors’ wrath and the possibility of death meant that they paid close attention to the minutest details of their jobs. One way a guard was put to death was by being stripped of his clothes and then burned alive in a fire started with his garments. If it was not apparent which soldier had failed in his duty, then lots were drawn to see which one would be punished with death for the guard unit’s failure. Certainly the entire unit would not have fallen asleep with that kind of threat over their heads. Dr. George Currie, a student of Roman military discipline, wrote that fear of punishment ‘produced flawless attention to duty, especially in the night watches. –Josh McDowell, Evidence for the Resurrection

And where was the body? If it was a hoax, wouldn’t the Jewish leaders move heaven and earth to lay hold of the body and squash rumors of a resurrection? But they couldn’t produce it.


And what about the hundreds of recorded witnesses who also claimed to see the risen Christ? Not only the disciples and the women saw Jesus. Cleopas and another disciple saw him on the road to Emmaus. And I Corinthians says Jesus “appeared to more than five hundred of the brothers at the same time, most of whom are still living.” Christ’s Resurrection was not done in secret. Hundreds saw him firsthand and testified to it. This was the news story of the day. One that the temple leaders would have hushed if they could, but it was too widely known. They could not refute so many witnesses.

Canon of Scripture

After understanding and proving that Jesus was a historical figure and his Resurrection was a historical event, I set out to prove or disprove the Bible as a reliable source. I started with learning how it came to be in its present form.

Who decided which books would be included in the Bible?

Early Christian leaders were actually Jewish rabbis. Jesus Christ was Jewish, and this new religion was born out of the ancient one. It wasn’t really a new religion at all, if you understand the correlation between Old and New Testaments, rather a fulfilling of the old. But as many Jews didn’t agree that Christ was truly the Messiah, Judaism and Christianity are today held as two separate religions. Nevertheless, the first church authorities were Jews, the men who walked and talked with and learned under Jesus. These were the men who heard his words, recorded them, and taught them to others. Their combined message was incredibly consistent. It was this consistency and first-hand experience that prompted their books and letters to be universally regarded as the authority among early leaders. Theirs was, in essence, the message preached by Christ.

As time passed, the church grew and spread and Gentiles took up leadership in their own congregations, heresies began to arise. There came into existence documents claiming new revelation, new doctrine. The need for a cohesive, authoritative collection (canon) became apparent. So a variety of councils were held in the first four centuries after Christ to decide which literature should be included.

What criteria were used to determine inclusion?

At the time these leaders met, the Old Testament scriptures were firmly established and widely accepted. It was primarily the New Testament collection they were debating. A variety of factors were used to decide which documents could be considered authoritative of church doctrine and added to biblical canon and which could not. Was the book written by an apostle or someone with a close association to them? (In other words, did they a have proper first-hand witness?) Were they consistent in their message? Did they contain high moral and spiritual values? Were they widely accepted by the early church? Did they contain errors?

This process of evaluation is very mindful of the methods scholars use today to determine the authenticity of historical literature, or even how testimony is evaluated in a legal case. New Testament scripture was held to a high standard, and if any document could not pass muster, it was discarded. In essence, this process whittled down the selection to only the books that were consistent with the message of Jesus Christ. As I already fully satisfied myself of his deity, provided the scriptural source documentation checked out, I’d say that’s a pretty reliable basis.

24,000 Manuscripts

One way historians judge the reliability of an antique text is by the number of ancient copies available, the accuracy between them, and the length of time from the text’s origin to the date of the oldest copy. There are 643 copies of Homer’s Iliad, a number that has universally satisfied historians as to its authenticity, even though there is a 500 year gap between the publication date and the oldest copy. We have over 24,000 copies of the New Testament from antiquity. 24,000! And the earliest copy is less than 100 years away from the original. Satisfactory? I think so.

But what about the Old Testament?

Just because they were already established, do we simply take those books on faith? Not at all. They had to meet similar criteria. Were the authors prophets or known men of God? Are their words without error? Have prophecies been confirmed? Have miraculous events verified the authors? Are they consistent in their messages?  The Old Testament books were reaffirmed by the early church councils. In fact, the Old Testament has been tested and reaffirmed much longer than the New Testament. Jesus himself attests to their reliability all through the gospels. 

Dead Sea Scrolls

One singular archaeological find did more to reaffirm the Old Testament’s historicity than any other find. In 1947, shepherd boys discovered the Dead Sea Scrolls. They include manuscripts or partial manuscripts of every book of the Bible except Esther. And they were written nearly one thousand years earlier that any previously known copies. The differences between the documents, even after one thousand years, were minimal, verifying that God has indeed preserved his Word over time.


One final subject I delved into to prove or disprove Chist and the Bible was prophecy. Prophecy, of course, is the predicting of events before they happen. Supernatural for sure. I wanted to satisfy myself that the prediction dates and later fulfillments were authentic.


Messianic prophecies were given throughout the Old Testament so we would recognize the Messiah when he came. Some told what he would do, some described his birth, others revealed what would happen to him at the hands of others. Many are details that could in no way be manipulated by a counterfeit.


All of the messianic prophecies in the Bible were foretold between 400 and 1,000 years before Christ was born. How can we know they were written that long ago? Maybe someone just wrote them down after-the-fact. Three words: Dead Sea Scrolls. These ancient documents are widely believed to date back two centuries before Christ’s birth. They not only verify the accuracy of biblical transcription, but they also prove the Messianic prophecies were written long before Jesus was actually born.


There are over 300 Messianic prophecies. Different scholars and translations give a range of actual numbers, from 365-456, and some of them can get pretty obscure, but the fact remains, there are at least 365 prophecies that everybody agrees on. That’s a pretty impressive number. Now the really cool part. Jesus fulfilled them all! That adds some veracity to the claims he made about Himself, doesn’t it?

Probability as Mathematical Proof

What’s the probability that one person (Jesus) could fulfill multiple prophecies?

Peter Stoner, Professor Emeritus of Science at Westmont College, with the help of 600 students, worked out the probability that one man could fulfill only eight prophecies. His numbers were widely reviewed by scientists and skeptics alike and found to be sound. The chance he came up with? One in 10 to the 17th power. That’s a one with seventeen zeros. To help us wrap our brains around that figure, he provided this analogy:

Suppose that we take 10 to the 17th silver dollars and lay them on the face of Texas. They’ll cover all of the state two feet deep. Now mark one of these silver dollars and stir the whole mass thoroughly, all over the state. Blindfold a man and tell him that he can travel as far as he wishes, but he must pick up one silver dollar and say that this is the right one. What chance would he have of getting the right one? Just the same chance that the prophets would’ve had of writing these eight prophecies and having them all come true in any one man, from their day to the present time, providing they wrote them in their own wisdom.

You have to admit, those are pretty incredible odds. Almost hints at some intelligent choreography, doesn’t it?

My Conclusion

When faced with this much proof, I had to admit the faith my parents taught me was authentic. God is real. Christ is divine. And the Bible is reliable. My mission now is to share these finds with others. Think how many lives would change if everyone knew this stuff?

Is there anyone you can share this post with?

Worldview Question #4: What happens to a person at death?

To view all the worldview questions and find links to each discussion in this series, click here.

The Bible makes it very clear that there is an afterlife. (Find the reasons I base my worldview on the Bible. Click here, here, and here.) And we choose where we’ll spend it. My discussion of question number three included a paragraph that has bearing here. Allow me to quote from it:

“Right off the bat, men rebelled against the order God created. We now have a predisposition toward sin and continue to rebel. We live with the consequences every day, yet we still want to think and act apart from God and his authority. And as Creator, he is the Authority and Judge whether we like it or not. Since God cannot abide sin or allow it to go unpunished, we are separated from him and in need of a Savior. Jesus Christ filled that role. He lived a sinless life and died (the punishment for sin) in our place. Those who accept that substitution will be reunited with and live with God on a sinless, recreated Earth someday.”

There is a Heaven. There is a Hell. God says we will spend eternity in one or the other. God, as Creator, is the Supreme Authority and the Judge. He set the standard and the punishment. We’ve all failed. We all deserve Hell. But in his mercy, God provided a way to circumvent that punishment. Once again, a biblical worldview offers hope.

What do you believe happens at death? What do you base that on?

Worldview Question #3: What is a human being?

To view all the worldview questions and find links to each discussion in this series, click here.

So, what is a human? Are we the product of eons of evolution? The freak chance of an unfeeling universe? An accident with no meaning or purpose? A brief light in the darkness of nothingness, to which we will return when the light blinks out?

I would like to offer a resounding NO!

The Bible, on which I base all the answers to my worldview questions (find my reasons here, here, and here), claims that man was formed in the image of God. This means we are intelligent, rational, able to communicate, able to create, able to reason. We are the very pinnacle of God’s handiwork, created for his glory. Because we are purposefully made, we are worthy of respect and honor. Which makes murder wrong. And abortion. And euthanasia.

Mankind was also given dominion over the rest of Creation. That means everything on earth is to be governed by man according to God’s teachings in the Bible. This includes not just ecology and ecosystems and other life forms but, well, everything. Economics, education, art, medicine, science, etc. But because mankind is fallen, we don’t do a very good job of it.

Right off the bat, men rebelled against the order God created. We now have a predisposition toward sin and continue to rebel. We live with the consequences every day, yet we still want to think and act apart from God and his authority. And as Creator, he is the Authority and Judge whether we like it or not. Since God cannot abide sin or allow it to go unpunished, we are separated from him and in need of a Savior. Jesus Christ filled that role. He lived a sinless life and died (the punishment for sin) in our place. Those who accept that substitution will be reunited with and live with God on a sinless, recreated Earth someday.

A Christian worldview gives mankind worth, purpose, and hope. Does yours? What exactly do you believe? What do you base it on? Why do you believe it?  And how do you “prove” it to yourself?

The Silence of the Lambs

gods-peopleI’ll get back to my worldview questions soon. Promise. Today I want to bring some attention to the atrocities going on around the world to Christians at the hands of Muslims. I receive the Voice of the Martyrs newsletter every month. I’d strongly encourage each and every reader out there to sign up for a free subscription over at the VOM website. Better yet, make a donation while you’re there. They are a fabulous source of information that the mainstream media will never report on and a fabulous source of support for those who suffer for following Christ. And pray! That’s a reminder to myself, too. Do it. And do it often.

Now, instead of writing the rest of this post myself, I’m turning it over to the very capable hands of Bill Meuhlenberg. You’ll really want to read what he has to say about the silence of the church while the world is murdering and raping our brothers and sisters. Click the link below and you’ll be directed straight to his article on BarbWire.com. It’s truly an eye-opener.

Darkness Covers the Land but God’s People Say and Do Nothing

(Image credit: Countdown.org)

Wordview Question #2: What is the nature of material reality?

I’ve been very slow covering my series on worldviews. Today I’ll look at question number two. To view all the questions and find links to each, you can view the original post.

So what is the nature of material reality? What I mean is, what is the world like around us? Is it orderly or chaotic? Created or autonomous? Does it have a purpose, or is it random? Is there a spiritual element to it or is it merely physical? And how do we relate to it?

I’ve already established that I base my Christian worldview on the historicity of Jesus Christ, the reliability of the Bible, and the fulfillment of prophecy. With that starting point, I believe the world was created. “In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth” (Genesis 1:1). I take that at face value, not only because it’s written in the Bible, but because there’s so much evidence to back it up. In the whole universe of billions of stars, we are aware of one planet that sustains life. One planet with an exact axis that spreads out heat and cold so both hemispheres can grow food. One planet with perfect revolution so no season is too long or too short and perfect rotation so day and night are not too long or two short. If either changed, our water would freeze or evaporate. One planet with a perfectly designed water cycle, nitrogen cycle, oxygen cycle. One planet with the perfect atmosphere to protect us from space radiation and debris. Chance? I don’t think so.

As a created world, it is also regulated by carefully designed natural laws that order our world and our lives. Laws such as those that govern physics and mathematics are not random, nor was it chance that brought them into being. They demonstrate purpose, control, and design. And being created by a supernatural Creator, the world has a definite spiritual element to it. Though it is ordered by natural laws, God’s power can, has, and does supercede natural law, resulting in miracles and supernatural occurances such as the worldwide flood, the virgin birth, and the resurrection of Jesus.

How are we to relate to such a world? First, we must understand that it was created for us. For our use, enjoyment, support, and rule. God gave us dominion over it and the intelligence to govern it wisely. Such a gift implies value in the recipient. Value above the gift. We, even more than the Creation we are a part of, are a product of purpose and design.

Do you believe the earth is created? Without design, how do you explain the overwhelming coincidence that one planet would develop the many necessities to support life? How do you explain the development of complex mechanisms such as reproduction involving the pairing of two distinctly different and compatible cells? Without design, what is the basis of order and natural laws? Without design, do people have value? On what do you base your value?

Hold a Seder in Your Home

You don’t have to be Jewish to celebrate Passover. The symbols in the Seder meal point directly to Jesus Christ, the Messiah. As Christians, this holiday takes on significant meaning. But undertaking a festival from a culture you didn’t grow up in can be daunting. So I’ll lay out the resources and recipes that have held me in good stead.

First, read up on the symbols and meanings. This is an excellent Messianic website explaining all the elements of the meal from a Jewish perspective so Christians might understand. Or check out my favorite reference, a book by Barney Kasdan that includes explanation of all the Jewish feasts, God’s Appointed Times. Here are a few of my blog posts you might find helpful, as well. (You can find similar posts covering other Jewish festivals in my “Holidays” category in my sidebar.)

Brush up on the Passover and Easter stories. Reread the Exodus story. Watch the old Ten Commandments  movie. My kids like to compare it to the biblical account. The animated movie Moses, Prince of Egypt is another great one for little guys. After the Exodus story, read the account of Christ’s triumphal entry, the last supper, the crucifixion. The Passion of the Christ is another excellent movie night choice for older kids. Then talk about how Jesus fulfilled the picture of the original Passover.

Plan a Seder dinner. It’s not hard. The downloadable documents below will give you a hand. Keep Kosher dietary rules in mind. Yeast is an important symbol in this meal and is completely avoided. Meijer and other big food stores will have boxes of Matzah (yeast-free bread like crackers) in their ethnic food sections. Milk combined with meat is another obscure rule for this meal that I usually ignore. We’re not really bound to the food rules, but I do follow the “no yeast” and the general “no pork” rules.

The Haggadah file below will be your best friend. Let me say that again. The Haggadah file below will be your best friend. This is the traditional “script” that is placed at every seat and followed the same way each year. It ties in the Exodus story and explains the symbols used during the meal. A Messianic script, which this is, also explains how each symbol points to Christ. It also explains all the symbols and items necessary and helps immensely with meal set up. Read it next. Take notes. I’ve posted it on my blog here, but the file below is formatted and printable (and updated from the blog post).

Seder Haggadah

You will also need a Seder Plate. The symbols used on the plate are explained in the Haggadah. Festive plates are available for purchase online but not necessary. Make your own using a nice platter and small bowls. (It calls for a lamb bone as one of the symbols. I use a chicken bone.)

Traditional recipes:

A few planning helps:

  • Seder checklist (Includes items mentioned in Haggadah.)
  • Food sign up list (This is the actual list I’m using this year. It might help you gauge numbers and dishes.)

Have fun! Hosting a Passover Seder is a great way to fellowship, teach Old Testament Jewish culture, and connect it to Christ’s death and resurrection. It gives a much deeper appreciation of Easter.

A Purpose Shared with Lewis

Jack, a life of lewisI’m reading through George Sayer’s Jack: A Life of C.S. Lewis at the moment. Very slowly as I dedicate most of my free time to finishing my current novel. I’ve always been a huge fan of The Chronicles of Narnia. A few weeks ago, I watched Shadowlands and afterward took an interest in learning Lewis’s real life story. It’s very interesting, this great man’s journey to faith. But so far, I’ve resonated most with his role as a children’s author. (Hmmmm…wonder why.)

I stumbled upon the following section of text in which Sayer summarizes Lewis’s thoughts on being a Christian author of mainstream literature, to which I’ve subscribed wholeheartedly without even realizing I was in agreement with him. Remember, Lewis was writing literature in the 1930’s-50’s.

“[Lewis] pointed out that the difficulties of the Christian writer or lecturer arose from the fact that the culture was not at all Christian. This meant that the influence of a Christian lecture or article would be undermined very quickly by the influence of films, newspapers, and novels in which an opposing point of view was taken for granted. This made it impossible for the Christian writer to achieve widespread success. What was wanted was not more ‘little books about Chritianity,’ but more books by Christians on the subjects in which the Christianity was latent.

“…Jack wanted the moral and spiritual significance of his works of fiction to be assimilated subliminally, if at all… Over and over in talking bout his fiction, he would say, ‘But it’s there for the story.'”

That’s it! That’s what I try to do when I write. I strive to create a story of excellence that will entertain yet rest on, to use Sayer’s word, a latent Christian worldview.

Another quote, a direct quote of Lewis’s that I found sadly humorous was in reference to the ignorant reception his sci-fi thriller Out of the Silent Planet received: “I think this great ignorance might be a help to the evangelisation of England; any amount of theology can now be smuggled into people’s minds under cover of romance without their knowing it.”

That does seem to be the case today, as well. I plan to continue taking advantage of it.

Worldview Question #1: What is the nature of ultimate reality?

It’s time I get back to my series on worldviews. To hold the posts together, I’m linking back to the original post, which will have all successive links at the bottom. The question I’ll tackle today is…

What is the nature of ultimate reality? (What is real?)

Included under this question are smaller ones, such as, is there such thing as the supernatural? Is there a God? What is he like? Is he personal? Knowable? What are his traits? Are there many gods? What are they like? If the supernatural is nonexistant, how did everything we see originate? What is real that we cannot see? I’ll attempt, in my own unscientific, untrained way, to explain what I believe to be the answer to these questions.

In my search for truth, I leaned heavily on the historicity of Jesus Christ, the reliability of the Bible, and the fulfillment of prophecy in making a decision for the Christian faith. So my answers will reflect a biblical worldview and rely on the Bible as my source.

Simply put, I believe that Creation is real–everything created by the spoken word of God. This includes all the physical matter we see around us, the earth, the sky, the universe. It encompasses the physical laws that hold Creation together. Absolute right and wrong are real. Spiritual beings are real. And of course, God is real.

God is infinite, triune, all-present, all-knowing, sovereign, and good. He is the only God. He is the basis of all reality. In him all things exist. Without him there is nothing. God is also personal. He’s knowable. And he’s revealed himself in the Holy Scriptures. God is the source of all reality. This is the underlying foundation of a Christian worldview, and all further answers hang decidedly from this singular belief.

Do you believe in God? If so, do you know him? If not, how do you explain all you see and all you believe to be true? What is the basis of your reality?

What’s a Worldview…and Why in the World Do I Need One?

magnifying_glass_globe_sm6First of all, you don’t need a worldview. You already have one. It’s simply the way you see and understand the world through the lens of your own beliefs. A worldview answers the hard questions like Why are we here? What is the meaning of life? Is there a God? And What happens when you die? Most people today, however, don’t think through what they really believe. Worldviews are often incomplete and even contradictory. They don’t make sense. But most people today don’t really care.

That’s unfortunate, because a worldview influences our decisions and attitudes. It comes through in our words and our actions. If, for example, someone believes their race is above all others, as happened in the American South or Nazi Germany, those persons will be cruel, brutal, and self-righteous. If someone believes all living things are connected, they will place special emphasis on preserving the environment. If someone thinks life is random chance without purpose or meaning, they will treat life with little respect.

The good thing is about worldviews, however, is that they can grow and change. We are constantly learning and modifying how we understand reality. It’s never too late to search for answers and tweak our beliefs.

Every author has a worldview. It influences what subjects we tackle, how we treat them, the language we use, the themes we write about, the point of view of our major characters, and the take away value of each story. It shapes how an author understands good and evil, what we perceive as moral or immoral, and the bias we take on controversial issues. By the time you finish a novel, you have learned much about what an author believes to be true.

I write from a distinctly Christian worldview. My books are not “religious”, but they are conservative and traditional. And not just because I write for a young audience–I’ve read plenty of children’s literature from non-Christian worldviews. They are an extension of the way I perceive the world.

Throughout the next year, I’ll be returning frequently to discuss the seven questions a worldview seeks to answer. And I’ll be sharing what I believe about each one. You need not agree with me, but I would encourage anyone who reads this to mull the questions over and answer them for themselves. Here they are listed below with links to further posts. See you next time!

1. What is the nature of ultimate reality? (What is real?)

2. What is the nature of material reality? (the physical world)

3. What is a human being?

4. What happens to a person at death?

5. Why is it possible to know anything at all?

6. How do we know what is right and wrong?

7. What is the meaning of human history?