Meshing Egyptian and Biblical Timelines

Since I’m always fascinated by anything relating to the Exodus, I was intrigued by an article by Dr. Elizabeth Mitchell titled “Doesn’t Egyptian Chronology Prove That the Bible is Unreliable?” The article was one of many that make up The New Answers Book 2, which is edited by Ken Ham and put out by Answers in Genesis. In it, Dr. Mitchell proves exactly the opposite. To quote from her final paragraph, “Accepting traditional Egyptian chronology (which, I might interject, has been found faulty by many secular historians) necessitates rejection of biblical truth. Accepting biblical chronology allows a reconstruction of ancient chronology on a foundation of truth. Viewing the evidence from a biblical framework makes the histories of Egypt and the Old Testament fit together like two sides of a zipper.”

The article draws on the work of David Down, whose book Unwrapping the Pharaohs is one I want to read. It points out synchronisms, or points of agreement, between the Old Testament and Egyptian sources, which provide key references to align the historical records. In this post, I’ll only summarize the ones related to Moses and the Israelites.

1.  Joseph may well have been Sesostris I’s vizier, Mentuhotep of the 12th dynasty. This vizier is described as a man of great authority and power, one who saw his people through a time of great famine due to prior preservation of food.

2. Sesostris III built the cities of Bubastis, Qantir, and Ramses using bricks made of mud and straw instead of the earlier stone. A large slave population lived in Egypt during this time (second half of 12th dynasty).

3. Cemeteries in parts of Egypt with large slave populations reveal that an incredibly high percentage of the dead were infants (65%). Recall Pharaoh’s slaughter of Israelite baby boys. Also, many two- to three-month-old babies were found buried in boxes under houses.  Slightly newer cemetaries (dated to late 13th dynasty) hold shallow mass graves of people buried without the usual “grave goods,” as though many bodies needed to be buried quickly. Tenth plague, possibly?

4.  The slave populations suddenly, abruptly left Egypt in the 13th dynasty.  The Exodus? Also, Neferhotep I’s mummy has never been found, and his son, Wahneferhotep never reigned. Could Neferhotep have been buried in the Red Sea with his army? Could his son have died of the tenth plague?

5. The invasion of the Hyksos at the end of the 13th dynasty has always baffled Egyptologists. How could such an advanced culture be suddenly taken over by outsiders without even a battle? But if the Egyptian army drowned in the Red Sea, Egypt would have been at the mercy of invaders.

All these coincidences make for some interesting speculation, do they not? There are many more listed in the article, aligning biblical and Egyptian histories all the way from Egypt’s founding through its Late Period and Judah’s captivity. To me, it’s always so exciting to see the accuracy of the Bible confirmed by secular sources. However, if they disagree, I, like Dr. Mitchell, prefer to rely on the biblical record every time.

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44 thoughts on “Meshing Egyptian and Biblical Timelines

  1. You can’t count on Manetho’s dynasty setup. Go for the comparison of what is actually known about Egyptian history. Set it up in Biblical time from when Abraham leaves UR some 430 years before the Exodus. The last 12 years of Pepi II’s reign when Abraham left UR. Pepi II dies at age 100. Pepi II is 96 years old when he meets Abraham age 75 and Sarah age 65. Pepi II had trade with UR when Abraham lived there. Pepi II traded Egyptian grain for UR silver and honey.Abraham would take UR silver out of Egypt. (Genesis 13:1-2) Pepi II’s naked male and female slaves he poured honey over them to keep the flies off him. Pepi II was Egypt’s first bi-sexual king.He loved one of his generals. His wife Neith is named after the Bee goddess. Some 20 years after Pepi II died Sodom & Gomorrah were destroyed. Byblos destroyed in an earthquake the same year Sodom was destroyed. (Sakkara Egyptian king list shows us the next king after Pepi II was Mentuhotep II) Mentuhotep II experienced drought and dug wells along the Nubian Egyptian trade route. Hagar and Ishmael life was saved when they discovered a well and Abraham fought over a well during this drought. (Genesis 21:17-19) & (Genesis 21:25) This is how you will uncover real Egyptian and Biblical matching history. Compare history not dynasties!

  2. After Pepi II’s reign, the next king to build monuments was Mentuhotep II. The kings listed between those two kings had no monuments built for them. The Sakkara king list omitted those kings for they did not exist except for Khety who fought Mentuhotep II. The first intermediate period is a grand hoax to cover up the civil war which occurred after Pepi II had died until Mentuhotep II’s 39th year of reign.

    Mentuhotep III reopened trade with Punt which had been closed by the civil war. Mentuhotep IV is slain by Amenemhet I. (Pepi II’s last 12 years, Mentuhotep II’s 51 years, Mentuhotep III’s 12 years and Mentuhotep IV’s 7 years = 82 years)

    Amenemhet I built the “Walls of the Ruler” to keep the Amorite/Canaanites out of Egypt. Abraham age 175 dies. Amorite/Babylon king Apil-Sin fights Amorite nomads with the help from Elamite king Warad-Sin king of Larsa. Senusret I experienced a famine. Senusret I was called “Throat Sliter of Asiatics” God tells Isaac not to enter Egypt. (Genesis 26:2) Amenemhet II fights the Syrians at Tunip taking 1567 people as slaves. Amorite/Babylon king Hammurabi destroys Mari, Syria and Hammurabi sends two ambassadors to Hazor Canaan. Amenemhet II receieves Tod treasure from the Minoans. Amorite Babylon king Samsu-iluna is attacked by Kassites in horse driven chariots. Egyptian king Senusret II has Minoan laborers build his temple.

    Senusret III’s first year Joseph enters Egypt at age 17. (Genesis 37:2) Jacob’s sons kill the male population of Shechem. (Genesis 34:25) God causes terror around the Amorite/Canaanite cities surrounding Shechem while Jacob & family escapes to Bethel. (Genesis 35:1-6) Senusret III then invades Canaan and annexes Canaan. Joseph dealt with the economies of both Egypt and Canaan.
    (Genesis 47:13-17)

    Joseph was given the second chariot to ride. (Genesis 41:43) Remember the Babylonian Amorite king Samsu-iluna was attacked by Kassites in horse driven chariots. We know horses existed because a horse skeleton was found at Buhen Nubia dated to Senusret III’s reign.

    1. Tom,
      I am currently taking world of egypt, and stumbled upon this link, you seem way to informed to be just a internet student, do you happen to have a book or something for me to use for my class? I continue to ask about hebrew history in all my classical classes and each teacher likes to side step my questions.
      Thank you,
      Dona

  3. Joseph was age 17 when he entered Egypt. (Genesis 37:2) Joseph would die at age 110. (Genesis 50:26) Joseph therefore lived in Egypt for 93 years. Senusret III’s reign was 39 years, Amenemhet III 45 years and Amenemhet IV’s reign was 9 years = 93 years. This means Joseph entered Egypt Senusret III’s first year serving as governor for all three Egyptian kings.

    The Canaanite/Hyksos entered Egypt selling their horses for bread. (Genesis 47:13-17) They were mere chieftains whom settled at Avaris. Their first chieftain was Sheshi who arrived in Egypt during the global famine (Genesis 41:57) the same time Jacob age 130 arrived (Genesis 47:9) in 1702 B.C.

    The Amorite/Canaanite/Hyksos chieftains serving Joseph were: Sheshi, Yakubher, Khyan and Apepi I.
    The chariot and horse was used for ceremonial purposes while Joseph lived. (Genesis 41:43) & (Genesis 50:7-9) After Joseph died the chariots were used for warfare.

    Amenemhet III reign Semitic Babylon slaves arrive in Egypt when Amorite king Ammi-ditana reigns. Merchants at Babylon had charged loans at 33% in the form of cash crops or 20% in silver causing many farmers to go broke and the farmers were sold into slavery. Amenemhet III used these slaves to complete the Faiyum irrigation project. Hyksos Canaanite chieftain Khyan and Amenemhet III both had trade contacts with the Minoans. Amenemhet III’s fleet visited the Minoan island of Crete and saw the Labyrinth and Amenemhet III builds a Labyrinth in Egypt. Amorite/Babylon king Ammi-saduqa passes a law requiring all merchants to forgive farmers debts. Those who ignore Ammi-saduqa’s orders are executed.

    The foreign Hebrew/Canaanite Joseph died a few months before Amenemhet IV died. Some Egyptians had hated Joseph for their wealthy ancestors had lost land (Genesis 47:20) to pharoah Senusret III. These Egyptians mainly from Thebes revolted when Joseph died. The second intermediate dynasties were created to cover up this second Egyptian civil war. (Thebean Mentuhotep IV had been killed by Amenemhet I and Amenemhet IV was assassinated by Thebean Ahmose family)

    Thebean Seqenenre Tao brought down Amenemhet IV. Tao was killed by Hyksos/Canaanite chieftain Apepi I. Kamose then reigns at Thebes and queen Sobekneferu reign at Itj-tawy and both are killed in this civil war. Hyksos Canaanite chieftain Apepi I becomes king at Avaris. Ten year old Ahmose becomes king at Thebes who lost his father Tao and brother Kamose in this civil war.

    Egyptian scribe told a children’s tale on how this civil war started by saying a hippo’s roar when Tao was reigning at Thebes woke up Hyksos/Canaanite Apepi I at Avaris some 500 miles away. It was Ahmose family who helped bring down the prosperous Amenemhet/Senusret dynasty.

    Amenemhet I reign 30 years. Senusret I 36 years. Amenemhet II 34 years. Senusret II 19 years. Senusret III 39 years. Amenemhet III 45 years. Amenemhet IV 9 years and Queen Sobekneferu 3 years = 215 years.

  4. Archaeologist working in Egypt’s delta state the Canaanite/Hyksos used 12th dynasty pottery and came to Egypt in peace just like our Bible states. The 12th dynasty are the Amenemhet/Senusret kings. Nubian pottery in Egypt diminished during Senusret III’s reign when Senusret III restricted Nubian immigration and Nubia pottery reappears when Ahmose’s family begins their rebellion. This could also indicate Egypt’s second intermediate period was created to cover up Egypt’s second civil war.

    Abydos Egyptian kings list reveals the next king after Amenemhet IV to reign was Ahmose. Ahmose as an adult wages war against Hyksos/Canaanite king Apepi II or Khamudi and Ahmose wins victory. Ahmose worhipped the Egyptian god Iah, while Amorite Babylonian king Samsu-ditana worshipped the moon-god Sin. Ahmose drives the Amorite/Hyksos out of Egypt some 8 years before Samsu-ditana Amorite dynasty falls at Babylon. Hyksos leave in the first Exodus out of Egypt. The Minoans stay in Egypt’s delta. The Minoans are the mixed crowd in Exodus 12:38. A ceremonial Minoan ax was found in Ahmose mother’s grave. Ahmose promised his followers LAND if they would fight for him. The LAND Joseph had bought for the pharoah (Genesis 47:20) was now going to be redistributed. Ahmose blotted Joseph’s name from Egyptian history accounts so a future pharoah would arise who knew not Joseph. (Exodus 1:8) Thutmose I who also hated foreigners, he had no idea Joseph saved Egyptian lives.

    Egyptian king Amenhotep I is fascinated by 12th dynasty calenders-the Amenemhet/Senusret kings produced those calenders. AMEN-hotep named for AMENem-het and Mentu-HOTEP the last real two Egyptian dynasties. Another Thebean revision of Egyptian history in an attempt to hide real history.
    Amenhotep I was interested in studying the moon and the stars much like Amorite Babylonian king Ammi-saduqa whom a little over a generation before worshipped the moon, stars and the planet Venus. Seems like ancient historians are leaving out the common religious and cultural exchanges between Babylon and Egypt as we can follow by tracing the 430 years from when Abraham and his family leaves UR until the second Exodus where the Hebrews leave Egypt.

    House of Thutmose I-III is biblical. Thutmose I was the slayer of male Hebrew babies. (Exodus 1:15-16) Thutmose I knew not Joseph. (Exodus 1:8) Joseph had saw the third Hebrew generation born in Egypt. (Genesis 50:26) Moses was the fourth generation born some 56 years after Joseph had died.
    Thutmose I daughter is princess Hatshepsut who saved infant Moses. (Exodus 2:5-10) Hatshepsut actually reigned for the sickly Thutmose II, while the senile Thutmose I was still alive. Zahi Hawass stated the mummy Egyptians thought was Thutmose I is actually a 30 year old man. Thutmose I reign was helped by queen Hatshepsut. Thutmose I Egyptian literature was actually an old man when he died. Moses escaped from Egypt when Hatshepsut was queen reigning for Thutmose I since Thutmose II had died. Queen Hatshepsut could not stop her father from wanting to kill Moses. Thutmose I would die shortly after Moses fled Egypt BUT Thutmose I administrators wanted Moses dead so Moses had to wait until they died. Thutmose III the Egyptian Napolean turned out to be the pharoah of the Exodus. Thutmose III perished some 480 years before Solomon’s 4th year. (1 Kings 6:1)

    Hatshepsut worshipped the cow goddess Hathor and the Hebrews in the wilderness a generation later worshipped the golden calf. (Exodus 32:24) Minoan boys were noted to leap over bulls.

    Ahmose 25 years. Amenhotep I 21 years. House of Thutmose I-III 87 years = 133 years.

    Pepi II-Mentuhotep IV = 82 + 215 Amenemhet I-queen Sobekneferu + 133 Ahmose -Thutmose III = 430 years from Abraham leaving UR to the Exodus.

    Amenhotep III receives the Tel-Amarna letters from Canaanite kings stating the Haribu (Hebrews) have invaded Canaan. Amenhotep III declares himself Egypt’s sun god after Joshua tells God to keep the sun in the sky until the Hebrews defeat their enemies. The sun did not go down for almost 24 hours. (Joshua 10:12-14) This scared Egyptian peasants so Amenhotep III declared himself a living sun god.

    Akenaton worships only one god Aton after Joshua dies. Moses died BEFORE Akenaton’s reign. The Hebrews did not receive their ideas of monotheism from the Egyptians. Akenaton’s poetry is similar to Psalms 104 some people have proclaimed.

  5. Tom, appreciate your replies, would like to know some of your sources, am working on some Biblical chronology/timelines.

    1. Adam’s creation 4000 B.C. (Genesis 5:1) Seth born 3870 B.C. (Genesis 5:3) Enos…3765 B.C. (Genesis 5:6) Cainan…3675 B.C. (Genesis 5:9) Mahalaeel born….3605 B.C. (Genesis 5:12)..Jared..3540 B.C. (Genesis 5:15) Enoch born..3378 B.C. (Genesis 5:18) Methuselah born 3313 B.C. (Genesis 5:21) Methuselah lives 969 years and dies the same year as Noah’s Flood 2344 B.C. Lamech…3126 B.C. (Genesis 5:25) Noah was born..2944 B.C. (Genesis 5:28-29) Noah was 600 years old (Genesis 7:11) when the global flood occurred in 2344 B.C.

      Arpachshad born two years after the flood..2342 B.C. (Genesis 11:10) Salah…2307 B.C. (Genesis 11:12) Eber…2277 B.C. (Genesis 11:14) Peleg born…2243 B.C. (Genesis 11:16) Reu born.. 2213 B.C. (Genesis 11:18) Serug born 2181 B.C. (Genesis 11:20) Nahor born 2151 B.C. (Genesis 11:22) Terah born 2122 B.C. (Genesis 11:24) Abraham is listed first only because he was important. This is not the birth order. Haran Abraham’s older brother was born in 2052 B.C. (Genesis 11:26 explained) Double check: Abraham is 75 (Genesis 12:4) when Terah is 205 (Genesis 11:32) Abraham was born in 1992 B.C.

  6. Abraham 1992-1817 B.C. (Genesis 25:7) Haran dies 1925 B.C. some 430 years before the Exodus. Sodom & Gomorrah destroyed 1893 B.C. Isaac lives 1892-1712 B.C. (Genesis 21:5 & Genesis 35:28) Jacob lives 1832-1685 B.C. (Genesis 25:26 & Genesis 47:28) Jacob was 130 years old when he entered Egypt in 1702 B.C. Joseph was 30 years old (Genesis 41:46) when he became governor of Egypt. Joseph lived during 7 years of plenty and Jacob entered Egypt in the second year of famine. 30 + 7 + 2 = 39. Joseph was 39 years old when Jacob entered Egypt in 1702 B.C. Joseph lived 1741-1631 B.C. (Genesis 50:26) Joseph saw the 3rd Hebrew generation being born in Egypt. (Genesis 50:23) Moses was the 4th generation born in Egypt. There was Levi, Kohath. Amram and then Moses and Moses was born in 1575 B.C. Exodus 1495 B.C. Moses lives 1575-1455 B.C. (Deuteronomy 34:7)

    NOTE: Joseph served an Egyptian king and Moses was born when an Egyptian king reigned. (Genesis 41:42) & (Exodus 1:8) Where are the Hyksos/Canaanites? They were at Avaris, Egypt living peacefully while Joseph reigned as governor. They came to Egypt trading their horses for bread. (Genesis 47:15-17)

  7. Exodus at 1495 B.C. Solomon reign 1019-979 B.C. (1 Kings 6:1 & 1 Kings 11:42) Rehoboam 979-962 B.C. (1 Kings 14:21) Abijam 962-959 B.C. (1 Kings 15:2) Asa 959-918 B.C. (1 Kings 15:10) Jehoshaphat 918-893 B.C. (1 Kings 22:42) Jehoram 893-885 B.C. (2 Kings 8:17) Ahaziah 885-884 B.C. (2 Kings 8:26) Athaliah 884-878 B.C. (2 Kings 11:1-3) Jehoash 878-838 B.C. (2 Kings 12:1) Amaziah 838-809 B.C. (2 Kings 14:2) Uzziah 809-757 B.C. (2 Kings 15:2)

    Do you see the importance of having the correct timeline? Solomon’s 4th year is 1015 B.C. some 480 years after the Exodus and Sheshonq I Shishak attacks Rehoboam in Rehoboam’s 5th year and dies a few months later in 974 B.C. (1 Kings 14:25) This means the pharoah of the Exodus Thutmose III did not die in 1434 B.C. he died 61 years earlier in 1495 B.C. at the Red Sea.

  8. Uzziah 809-757 B.C. (2 Kings 15:2) Jotham 757-741 B.C. (2 Kings 15:33) Ahaz 741-725 B.C. (2 Kings 16:2) Hezekiah 725-696 B.C. (2 Kings 18:2) Manasseh 696-641 B.C. (2 Kings 21:1) Amon 641-639 B.C. (2 Kings 21:19) Josiah 639-608 B.C. (2 Kings 22:1) Jehoahaz 608 B.C. (2 Kings 23:31) Jehoiakim 608-597 B.C. (2 Kings 23:36) Jehoiachin 597 B.C. (2 Kings 24:8) & Zedekiah 597-586 B.C. (2 Kings 24:18)

    Solomon’s Temple was destroyed in 586 B.C.E. or B.C. depending on who is exploring this chronology timeline from a Jewish or Christian perspective.

  9. Solomon’s 4th year was 480 years after the Exodus. Solomon reigned for 36 more years = 516 years and Rehoboam’s 5th year 521 years after the Exodus the first Libyan pharoah Shishak attacks Jerusalem and dies shortly a few months afterwards. (1 Kings 6:1 & 1 Kings 14:25) Using the reign of Egyptian kings in solo years example Amenhotep II 26 years = 24 years solo and using encyclopedia Americana 1974 edition reign of years of these kings adapted to the biblical 521 year chronology we have a perfect match from Thutmose III perishing in the Exodus to the death of Shishak some 521 years later with no missing links.

    Amenhotep II 1495-1471 B.C. Thutmose IV 1471-1462 B.C. Amenhotep III 1462-1424 B.C. Akenaton 1424-1407 B.C. Semenkhare 1407-1406 B.C. Tutankhamen 1406-1396 B.C. Ay 1396-1392 B.C. Horemheb 1392-1361 B.C. Ramses I 1361-1360 B.C. Seti I 1360-1347 B.C. Ramses II 1347-1280 B.C. Merneptah I 1280-1268 B.C. Amenmesses 1268-1263 B.C. Seti II 1263-1258 B.C. Merneptah II 1258-1251 B.C. Queen Tausert 1251-1249 B.C. Irsu the Syrian 1249-1247 B.C. Setnakht 1247-1245 B.C. Ramses III 1245-1213 B.C.

  10. Ramses III 1245-1213 B.C. Ramses IV 1213-1207 B.C. Ramses V 1207-1203 B.C. Ramses VI 1203-1193 B.C. Ramses VII 1193-1192 B.C. Ramses VIII 1192-1185 B.C. Ramses IX 1185-1166 B.C. Ramses X 1166-1157 B.C. Ramses XI 1157-1130 B.C. Smendes 1130-1103 B.C. Neferkhres 1103-1099 B.C. Psusennes I 1099-1049 B.C. Amenmope 1049-1040 B.C. Osokhor 1040-1034 B.C. Siamon 1034-1014 B.C. Psusennes II 1014-995 B.C. & Shishak 995-974 B.C. Rehoboam’s 5th biblical year is 974 B.C. some 521 years after the Exodus.

    Mathematics within the biblical guidelines reveals the pharoah of the Exodus is Thutmose III since the 521 years has been filled in by the other Egyptian kings.

  11. Trying to sort out the real hazy Egyptian chronology from Sheshonq I (Shishak) 995-974 B.C. Osorkon I 974-938 B.C. Takelot I 938-915 B.C. Osorkon II 915-888 B.C. Sheshonq II 888 B.C. Takelot II 888-873 B.C. Sheshonq III 873-822 B.C. Pami 822-817 B.C. Sheshonq IV 817-780 B.C. Pedibast 780-756 B.C. There are 5 Libyan kings reign over Egypt’s delta 756-733 B.C. Sheshonq V, Osorkon III, Takelot III, Amenrud & Osorkon IV. The Ethiopian king Piankhi takes over Memphis in 738-728 B.C. Shabaka 728-714 B.C. Shabataka 714-698 B.C. reigns over Egypt as Taharka reigns over Ethiopia 714-698 B.C. Taharka reigns over both Ethiopia and Egypt 698-672 B.C. Necho I 680-672 B.C. challenges Taharka. Tanutamon reigns 672-664 B.C. Psamtik I 664-610 B.C. Necho II reigns 610 B.C. slays Judah’s king Josiah in 608 B.C. (2 Kings 23:29)

    This is the most difficult history to assemble together for the Libyan pharoah’s did not keep good records.

  12. How the book of Judges fits exactly into 1 Kings 6:1. 1495 B.C. The Exodus. Hebrews enter Canaan 1455 B.C. Egyptian king Amenhotep III receives the Tel-Amarna letters from Canaanite kings stated the Haribu (Hebrews) have invaded Canaan. Amenhotep III reigns 1462-1424 B.C.

    Othniel 1418-1378 B.C. defeats Cushan-Rishathaim in his 8th year in 1410 B.C. Ehud 1378-1298 B.C. slays Moabite king Eglon in his 18th year in 1360 B.C. Deborah and Barack 1298-1258 B.C. defeat Jabin the Canaanite in 1278 B.C. Gideon 1258-1218 B.C. 7th year he defeats the Midianites, Amalekites and children from the east Syria in 1251 B.C. Egyptian queen Tausert 1251-1249 B.C. has a love affair with her Syrian butler Bay. Abimelech 1218-1215 B.C. slays his 70 half brothers. Ramses III 1245-1213 is targeted for assassinated. Judge Tola 1215-1192 B.C. Judge Jair 1192-1170 B.C. Ammon oppresses Israel 18 years. 1170-1152 B.C. Who were the judges during Ammon’s oppression? Ibson 1170-1163 B.C. reigned as judge.
    Elon 1163-1153 B.C. reigned as judge. For 300 years Judges 11:26 1453-1153 B.C. Ammon did not want their land and now they wanted it back.

  13. Jephthah 1153-1147 B.C. defeats Ammon in 1152 B.C. Abdon 1147-1139 B.C. reigned as judge. Philistine oppression 1139-1099 B.C. Samson 1139-1119 B.C. reigns as judge. The ark of the covenant is with the Philistines 1119-1099 B.C. which was taken to Kirjath-jearim for 20 years. (1 Samuel 7:2) Samuel reigns as judge. Saul reigns 1099-1059 B.C. David reigns 1059-1019 B.C. & Solomon reigns 1019-979 B.C. and Solomon’s 4th year was 1015 B.C. some 480 years after the Exodus. (1 Kings 6:1) Exodus = 1495 B.C.

    I provided the information by using the Bible from Adam’s creation 4000 B.C. to Zedekiah last year reigning at 586 B.C. I hope you can use this information Steve.

  14. Why I do not trust Manetho’s account on Egyptian history? Look at the 1-3 ,5, 7-10,13-17 & 22-24 dynasties. There is no father to son succession in most cases.

    When mankind scattered from the Tower of Babel around Peleg’s birth in 2243 B.C. the Egyptians would have been immediately arriving in Africa from Sumer/Shinar with the knowledge on how to build pyramids and the first pyramid builder was king Zoser/Djoser who built the Stairway to Heaven called “The Step Pyramid”.

    Egyptian history is focused on the legendary king Menes yet it would take some 800 years for Egypt to build its first pyramid in Djoser’s reign? Its impossible the Egyptian homo-sapien species of mankind to have an idle history for 800 years from Menes to Djoser. Manetho’s story is fishy. Djoser seems to be Egypt’s real first king to reign after the Egyptians left Babel. (Genesis 10:10 city)

    There are 4 Hamitic tribes. (Genesis 10:6) Hamitic Egyptian king Snefru fights with the Hamitic Nubian/ Cushites, Hamitic Phut/Libyans and establishes trade with the Hamitic Canaanites at Byblos, Lebanon. Sneferu builds the 1st Egyptian temple at Byblos and builds Egypt’s first fleet of 40 wooden ships. Snef-ru may have been the son of Path-ru-(ism) ism = tribe. (Genesis 10:14) The man’s name is Path-ru. All 4 Hamitic tribes in Snefru’s reign have ties with each

  15. other. Path-ru had recognition for having established Pathros. (Ezekiel 29:14) Path-ru may have been deified Ptah the god priest Imhotep who designed Djoser’s Step Pyramid worshipped. (Ptah in book Man, Myth and Majic) Snefru’s son was Khufu who received tribute from the Hamitic Nubians and the Greek basketweavers. Khufu built the first pyramid at Giza. Some believe his son Redejef designed the Sphinx. Khufu’s other son Khafre built the second pyramid at Giza and imported beer from Ebla, Syria.

    Naramsin supposely captured the Egyptian king Manium (The Sumerians Samuel Noah Kramer p.276) Stone quarried blocks he brought back from Egypt. I believe Naramsin invaded Egypt in Menkaure’s reign and Menkaure did not have enough quarried blocks to complete his pyramid so his son Shepseskaf completed the third pyramid at Giza. Shepseskaf was assassinated by the Egyptian priesthood. Userkaf built the first sun temple. Egyptians had trade with the Greeks on the island of Cythera for Userkaf’s temple cup was found there.
    Sahure was the first Egyptian to develope trade with Punt, East Africa. IF Egyptian history was 1,000 years before Sahure why was Sahure the first to establish trade with East Africa?

    No one will believe this timeline but it makes sense to me.

  16. Sahure was named after the Sahara desert. Martin Claussen climatologist at Potsdam,Germany once said around 4,000 B.C. the Sahara desert was green and 2,000 years later in 2,000 B.C. the Sahara turned into a vast desert. (Article in Time Magazine) I believe if mankind fled the Tower of Babel around 2243 B.C. Sahure reign 2111-2097 B.C. brother Neferirkare co-regent 2111-2101 B.C. Unas reign 2097-2068 B.C. Shepseskare co-regent 2101-2094 B.C. Neferefre co-regent 2094-2087 B.C. Niuserre co-regent part of Unas reign 2087-2055 B.C. Teti reigns 2068-2056 B.C. Niuserre co-regent. Pepi I reigns 2056-2007 B.C. Menkauhor co-regent 2055-2047 B.C. Djedkare co-regent 2046-2007 B.C. Pepi II reign 2007-1913 B.C. Djedkare had trade with central Africa and Egyptian explorers brought back a pygmy. Pepi II reign he traded with central Africa and explorers brought back a pygmy.

    Pepi II 2007-1913 B.C. was born in 2013 B.C. and Pepi II was 96 years old when Abraham 1992-1817 B.C. visited Egypt at age 75 in 1917 B.C. when Sarah was 65 years old.

    (Saqqara Egyptian kings list shows the next Egyptian king to reign after Pepi II was Mentuhotep II. No signs of major building projects after Pepi II died until Mentuhotep II reigns indicating the Saqqara Egyptian kings list could be right)

  17. Mentuhotep II 1913-1862 B.C. reunites Egypt from civil war occuring upon Pepi II death. 1893 B.C. Sodom is destroyed. Mentuhotep III 1862-1850 B.C. Mentuhotep IV 1850-1843 B.C. Amenemhet I 1843-1813 B.C. builds “Wall of the Ruler” to keep the Amorite/Canaanites out of Egypt. Abraham dies in 1817 B.C. God tells Isaac 1892-1712 B.C. not to enter Egypt. (Genesis 26:2) Senusret I 1813-1777 B.C. is called the “Throat Sliter of Asiatics” which is good enough reason for Isaac to stay out of Egypt. (Oxford History of Egypt. Ian Shaw 2000 A.D. p. 167) Amenemhet II 1777-1743 B.C. brings 1567 Semitic slaves into Egypt from Tunip, Syria. Senusret II 1743-1724 B.C. Canaanite/Amorites begin filtering into Egypt. Minoans build Senusert II his temple at Luhun, Egypt. Senusret III 1724-1685 B.C. Joseph age 17 enters Egypt upon the death of Egyptian king Senusret II.

    Senusret III annexes Canaan after fighting a battle near Shechem after Jacob had fled that city. (Genesis 33:18 & Genesis 35:1-6. God terrorized the cities around Shechem Genesis 35:5 making it easier for Senusret III’s conquest.

  18. Senusret III’s sister was Sit-Hathor-Yunet. She wore a necklace with the vulture goddess Nekhbet was represented. This was during the time of the 7 year famine. (Genesis 41:30) Joseph would shave before he met the pharoah. (Genesis 41:14) Archaeologist found a golden razor in Sit-Hathor-Yunet’s tomb. The pharoah Senusret III would give Joseph the second chariot to ride. (Genesis 41:43) Yes, they had horses in Egypt for Senusret III built the fortress at Buhen, Nubia and in 1959 A.D. archaeologists found a horse skeleton under the ramparts. Horses were used for ceremonies only when Joseph reigned as governor. They were not used for warfare. Horses were collected from the Canaanite/Hyksos. (Genesis 47:15-17) Hyksos chieftain Sheshi settled at Avaris 1702-1699 B.C. Yakubher 1699-1690 B.C. Joseph bought all the land for the pharoah except the priests land. (Genesis 47:20-22) Lavish tombs for the nomarch’s ceased being built. The wealthy in Thebes were now landless as all the land became the pharoah’s.

  19. Amenmehet III 1685-1640 B.C. completes Bahr Yusef (Joseph’s canal) He used Babylonian slaves from Amorite king Ammi-ditana 1683-1647 B.C. kingdom. Hyksos/Canaanite chieftain Khyan 1690-1660 B.C. resides at Avaris peacefully. Khyan’s scarab was found at Babylon. Hyksos/Canaanite chieftain Apepi I 1660-1619 B.C. resides at Avaris peacefully until Joseph dies in 1631 B.C. Apepi I liked Amenemhet III for Apepi I’s name was etched on the back of four Amenemhet III sphixes found at Tanis and Amenemhet III’s reign the Mathematical Rhind Papyrus was first written then recopied by Apepi I. Amenemhet IV 1640-1631 B.C. Joseph dies and some Egyptians want the land of their ancestors taken away in (Genesis 47:20) returned. Amenemhet IV mysteriously dies the same year. Queen Sobekneferu 1631-1628 B.C. Sobek for the crocodile god as she had many enemies. Traditional Egyptian history also has her mysteriously disappearing.

    There are only 56 years from Joseph’s death to Moses birth. Both served Egyptian kings. The Abydos Egyptian kings list lists after Amenemhet IV dies the next king to reign over Egypt is 10 year old Ahmose.
    Moses princess who resqued him was Thermuthis says Josephus. Thermuthis is from the Thutmose family which means it was princess Hatshepsut who saved the infant Moses. This chronology must be right. It was Hyksos/Canaanite chieftain Apepi I who killed Ahmose father Seqenere Tao and brother Kamose.

  20. Ahmose 1628-1603 B.C. offers Egyptians land all who will fight with him. Land which Joseph had purchased for king Senusret III. Apepi II or Khamudi reigns 1619-1608 B.C. and the Canaanite/Hyksos are driven out of Egypt in the first Exodus. Ahmose worships the moon god Iah. Amorite Babylonian king Samsu-ditana 1625-1595 B.C. worships the moon god Sin.

    Amenhotep I 1603-1582 B.C. goes to war against the Nubians. Amenhotep I worships the planet Venus. Amorite Babylonian king Ammi-saduqa 1646-1626 B.C. worshipped the planet Venus.

    Thutmose I-III 1582-1495 B.C. There are a wide range of years spanning these king reigns from about 50 years ago. We know Thermuthis was princess Hatshepsut who saved infant Moses so her father was Thutmose I who wanted all Hebrew male infants killed. (Exodus 1:15-16 & Exodus 2:5-10) Thutmose II was sickly and may have reigned a few years and then queen Hatshepsut reigned for him. (Thutmose I Funk & Wagnals 1965 edition helped Thutmose II reign upsurping Hatshepsut for three years showing that Thutmose I and Thutmose II were both alive before queen Hatshepsut reigned for Thutmose III some 22 years.Then Thutmose III reigns solo 32 years) Thutmose III is the Exodus pharoah as 1 Kings 6:1 zero’s in on his reign.

  21. Egyptian chronology based upon mankind leaving the Tower of Babel at 2243 B.C.

    Djoser/Zoser 2243-2225 B.C., Snefru 2225-2202, Khufu 2202-2180 B.C. Redejef 2180-2173 B.C. Khafre 2173-2149 B.C., Menkaure 2149-2122 B.C. Shepseskaf 2122-2118 B.C. Userkaf 2118-2111 B.C. Sahure 2111-2097 B.C., (Sahure’s co-regent brother Neferirkare 2111-2101 B.C.) Unas 2097-2068 B.C. Teti 2068-2056 B.C. Pepi I 2056-2007 B.C. (Djedkare co-regent 2046-2007 B.C.)

    IF RU is the ending before the Egyptians went to Re sun-worship we have this possible link with a solid continuous history beginning with the pyramid builders should Djoser be Mizraim.

    Path-ru (Genesis 10:14) father of Snef-ru, grandfather of Khufu, great-grandfather of Redejef, great-grandfather of Khaf-ru, great-great-grandfather of Menkau-ru, great-great-great grandfather of Shepseskaf, General Userkaf married Menkau-ru’s daughter so Path-ru is the great-great-great-great grandfather of Sahu-ru. Dynasty change: General Unas, Unas son Teti, Unas grandson Pepi I & Unas great-grandson Pepi II.

    1. Thank you very much Tom. All this info is a bit overwhelming, I’ll need to put it all in a document and spend some time with it.

      Exact dates are not as important to me as time intervals. Have been working on Abraham’s 430 years and using Demetrius the Chronologer’s dates a little. Of course the Pharoah of Ex. 12:40 is of interest.

  22. Egyptian north-east border was the Sinai near Gaza during Zoser’s reign. Egyptians mined for copper in the Sinai near the Red Sea which they used copper tools to build the Step Pyramid. (Genesis 10:19) Sneferu builds 1st Egyptian temple at Byblos, Khufu builds 1st pyramid at Giza, Redejef designs 1st Sphinx, Khafru 1st to have trade with Ebla, Syria, Menkauru is 1st to establish trade with mainland Greece and 1st Egyptian king who was attacked by Mesopatamians, Shepseskaf is 1st to be assassinated. Egyptian priests assassinated him. Userkaf is Menkauru’s general who married his daughter. Userkaf is 1st to build sun-temples in Egypt. Userkaf’s temple cup found at Cythera, Greece. Sahuru 1st to establish trade with Punt & Asia-Minor. Starving desert tribes from Sahara filter into Egypt. Unas next king for same bas relief showing starving desert tribes and temple columns same height as Sahure showing same Egyptian craftsmen worked at both sites. Sahure had plumbing for pipe was found at his temple and Unas had an underground bedroom suite built for the afterlife equiped with plumbing. Teti’s mother first to have dental work. Pepi I 1st to use Cushite tribes in Egypt’s army & Pepi II is Egypt’s 1st bi-sexual king having trade relations with Sodom which is destroyed some 20 years after Pepi II dies. Pepi II artifacts found at Byblos which experienced a large earthquake burying Pepi II’s artifacts when Sodom was destroyed.

  23. Tracking real Egyptian history by following Egyptian gods and goddesses. Ptah = god of creation the deified Pathrusim (Genesis 10:14) Priest Imhotep who designed Egypt’s first pyramid for Zoser worshipped Ptah. Neith = the Bee goddess who was the wife of Egypt’s king Pepi II. This king Pepi II poured honey over his naked male and female slaves to keep the flies off him. Abraham lived at UR when UR’s king Bur-Sin/Amar-Sin built the House of Honey. Pepi II’s wife Neith was had a fair complexion like Sarah. (Genesis 12:11) Abraham visited this king who God would plague. (Genesis 12:17) Abraham received silver from Egypt. (Genesis 13:2) There were no silver mines in Egypt at this time. The silver came from Abraham’s hometown of UR whom Pepi II had trade relations! Pepi II also had trade relations with Sodom. Pepi II’s younger days before he married Neith he was in love with one of his generals who patrolled southern Canaan in the region of Sodom a city Abraham later prayed over. Mentu = god of war and violence. Mentu-hotep II had 12 wells dug along the Egyptian Nubian trade route after Egypt’s civil war which occurred when Pepi II died finally ended in Mentuhotep II’s 39th year of reign. The Philistine Abimelech servents had violently took away Abraham’s well (Genesis 21:25) at a time when drought hit the Middle-East. It seemed like Hagar and Ishmael also needed a well for their survival. (Genesis 21:15-19)

  24. Joseph’s 7 year famine (Genesis 41:30) was worldwide. (Genesis 41:57) This famine occurred 1704-1697 B.C. The Yemen Tablet and the Yemen Stone record Joseph’s 7 year famine. Babylon’s king Abi-Eshuh 1710-1684 B.C. dams up the Tigris River to starve out the Sealanders who invaded southern Babylon during the 7 year famine and Shang Dynasty first emperor Cheng Tang reign did not start in 1766 B.C. Cheng Tang’s reign started with Joseph’s 7 year famine showing the famine was worldwide. Joseph served Egyptian king Senusret III whose sister thought by praying to the vulture goddess Nekhbet = famine that the famine would end. Egyptian craftsmen made her a nice necklace displaying the vulture goddess so all her subjects could witness. Queen Sobek-neferu the word Sobek = crocodile god. Queen Sobek was surrounded by powerful enemies when Amenemehet IV and Joseph had died. The Thebeans wanted their land back that Joseph had purchased for Senusret III (Genesis 47:20) Joseph died and the Thebeans wanted their ancestors land back.
    Like the characteristics of a crocodile her life was hidden from view.

  25. Egypt the mixed multitude (Exodus 12:38) were Minoans living in Egypt’s delta. Archaeologists found their frescoes in Egypt’s delta. One frescoe showed Minoan boys leaping over bulls. Egyptian queen Hatshepsut worshipped Hathor = the cow goddess and the Hebrews in the wilderness worshipped the golden calf (Exodus 32:24) less than one generation after Hatshepsut had died. The pharoah of the Exodus was Thutmose III the Egyptian Napolean. Thut is equal to Thoth = the god of wisdom. Was it wise to defy the Hebrew god and be plagued 10 times? Aken-aton worshipped Aton = the solar sun-god. Akenaton was a prince when his father Amenhotep III received the Tel-Amarna letters stating from Canaanite kings that the Haribu (Hebrews) had invaded Canaan. Prince Akenaton witnessed the sun stand still in the sky for almost 24 hours. (Joshua 10:12-14) After Joshua died, Akenaton quickly adopted Aton worship wrongly believing the Hebrews had worshipped the sun. (The Hebrews worship the God of all Creation) Some say Akenaton’s poetry is similar to Psalms 104.

  26. Foreign kings effect on Israel’s judges. Exodus 1495 B.C. Joshua destroys Jericho 1455 B.C. Judge Othniel 1418-1378 B.C. defeats Cushan-Rishathaim in his 8th year in 1410 B.C. Cushan-Rishathaim = Mitanni king Tushratta 1445-1406 B.C. Tushratta is Egyptian king Akenaton 1424-1407 B.C. uncle. Judge Ehud 1378-1298 B.C. slays Moabite (Shasu) king Eglon his 18th year in 1360 B.C. Egyptian king Seti I 1360-1347 B.C. goes to war against the Shasu. Judges Deborah & Barack 1298-1258 B.C. defeat Jabin the Canaanite (Amorite) in their 20th year in 1278 B.C. Egyptian king Ramses II 1347-1280 B.C. 34th year 1313 B.C. he gives the Amorite territory of Lebanon to Hittite king Hattusilas III 1330-1301 B.C. as a wedding present for Ramses II married the daughter of the Hittites. Then the Hittite king Tudhaliyas III 1301-1274 B.C. gave the Lebanon Amorites independence in a military alliance against Assyrian king Shalmaneser I 1314-1284 B.C. Some Amorites armed with Hittite iron chariots (Judges 4:3) attack Israel.

  27. Judge Gideon 1258-1218 B.C. in his 7th year 1251 B.C. he defeats the Midianites, Amalekites and the children of the east (East = Syrians) in (Judges 6:3) Assyrian king Tukulti-Ninurta I 1283-1247 B.C. invaded Syria and the Syrians fled into the Hittite empire, Lebanon, Israel and Egypt. They came to Egypt and Israel to feed their bellies. (Judges 6:4) Egyptian king Merneptah I 1280-1268 B.C. said they came to Egypt to feed their bellies, Amenmesses 1268-1263 B.C. had internal disorder do to the influx of Syrians, Seti II 1263-1258 B.C. married a Syrian woman, Merneptah II 1258-1251 B.C. was part Syrian in orgin, Queen Tausert 1251-1249 B.C. had an affair with her Syrian butler Bay, Syrian Irsu 1249-1247 B.C. reigns over Egypt destroying Egyptian temples and the Egyptian leader Setnakht 1247-1245 B.C. finally drives the Syrians out of Egypt.
    Judge Abimelech 1218-1215 B.C. slays his 70 half brothers. (Judges 9:18 & Judges 9:22) Ramses III 1245-1213 B.C. assassination took place in the Harem conspiracy. There is lawlessness in Israel and Egypt. Judge Tola reigns in peace 1215-1192 B.C. (Judges 10:1-2)

  28. Judge Jair 1192-1170 B.C. Ramses VI 1203-1193 B.C. troops leave Asia. Judge Jair then builds 30 cities. (Judges 10:3-4) Ammon and the Philistines oppress Israel 18 years 1170-1152 B.C. who were the judges reigning when Ammon oppressed Israel? Ibson reigned 1170-1163 B.C. Elon reigned 1163-1153 B.C.
    Jephthah 1153-1147 B.C. Judges 11:26 states Ammon told Jephthah they had rights to reclaim their land as they were talking to Jephthah about the years 1453-1153 B.C. Judges 11:26 says why did Ammon wait so long in wanting their lands back. Jephthah then goes to war against Ammon and the Philistines winning victory in 1152 B.C. Egyptian king Ramses X 1166-1157 B.C. merchants try reaching Lebanon by the land route but Ammon causes all trade to cease. Ramses XI 1157-1130 B.C. sends Wenamun on a boat to Byblos, Lebanon trying to secure wood but Wenamun was robbed. Judge Abdon reigns 1147-1139 B.C. Egyptian king Smendes reigns 1130-1103 B.C. Assyrian king Tiglath-Pileser I 1137-1099 B.C. visits Lebanon and Egypt sends the Assyrian king a crocodile as tribute proving Egypt was impoverished. Philistines oppress Israel 1139-1099 B.C. Samson judge 1139-1119 B.C. Ark of the Covenant taken to Kirath-jearim (1 Samuel 7:2) for 20 years 1119-1099 B.C. Samuel reigns as judge.

  29. Saul reigns as king over Israel 1099-1059 B.C. Egyptian king Psusennes I 1099-1049 B.C. was quite wealthy since he married a priest daughter. The Egyptian priesthood owned 80% of the land of Egypt. Archaeologist found treasures in his tomb. David reigns over Israel 1059-1019 B.C. During Psusennes I reign some Egyptians were sold into slavery. (1 Samuel 30:11-16) Egyptians were also guards or perhaps mercenaries. (2 Samuel 23:21) Solomon reigns over Israel 1019-979 B.C. Solomon’s 4th year is 1015 B.C. some 480 years after the Exodus. (1 KIngs 6:1) Exodus = 1495 B.C. Solomon married an Egyptian princess Egyptian king Siamon 1034-1014 B.C. daughter. (1 Kings 3:1) & (1 Kings 9:15-16) This completes the time from the Exodus to Solomon’s reign showing the various foreign kings who lived in the time of the Israel judges and the three kings: Saul, David and king Solomon. It was during king Solomon’s son Rehoboam’s reign 979-962 B.C. Libyan/Egyptian pharoah Sheshonq I (Shishak) 1 Kings 14:25 attacks Jerusalem in 974 B.C. and dies a few months later.

      1. If he doesn’t see this, would you like me to forward him your email, Rob? I have it, but probably shouldn’t pass it along without permission. So I’m asking your permission to pass along yours to him.

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